HISTORY

The name "Mangalica" means "roll-shaped," it could be from the Serbo-croatischem "mangala svinija - pig that is well fed", "Mangulica" or "Mangulac - easy fat becoming" or by the Romanian "mancare - eat" may be derived.

Many names are used for the Mangalitsa, his races and crossbreds: Mangalitsa, wool haired pig, curly-haired pig, Baris and Ordas (crossbred) or Bogauner (Bakony ancestor of Mangalitsa). In different countries are different spellings for Mangaltiza:

 Mangalica (Hungarian), Mangulica (Serbian), Mangalita (rum), Mangalitsa (AmE), Mangulac, Mangaliza, Mangalicza. The races of the Mangalitsa pigs (Hungarian Blonde Mangalitsa) in Hungarian Szöke, Fecskehasu (Hungarian Mangalitsa swallowbellied) and Voros called (Hungarian Red Mangalitsa).

 

The primary breeding in Kisjeno has pioneered this development. A document from 1833 shows involved the transportation of twelve Schumadinka (Sumadija, Sumadia) fat pigs (2/10) as bred in Topscider, Belgrade, the Serbian Prince Milos Obrenovic, the Palatine of Hungary, Joseph Anton Johann of Austria in its Dömäne Kisjeno. This "Milos-pigs" were paired with Szalontai and Bakony-pigs. Their descendants became the basis for subsequent fat pig breeding. The "blood-Kisjeno" spread all over the numerous breeding flocks in Hungary.

 

Mangalitza as the leading lard type breed, the products of this pig fueled mainly the population of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The reason of his popularity was the fat.  After a long time runner, the pigs were fattened up to 250 to 300 kg,. 20 to 25cm backfat not uncommon.

Before the introduction of the Danube Steam Navigation and construction of rail shipments of pig farms they had to bring the pigs to the Vienna slaughterhouses in weeklong walks by feed.  1871, 38.330 fat pigs from Gyor and Sopron were driven to the Vienna market.

In the 1890s in Budpest a pig market system and the pig slaughter house was built. Hungarian livestock census in 1895 showed a population of 6,447,143 pigs (MATLEKOVITS 1900; Tormay 1896). 94% of them belonged to the lard type pig.

Hungary with 407 pigs per 1000 inhabitants, the country with the most pigs in Europe. 1894 73% to Central and Western Europe were exported.

This first golden age of Hungarian fat pig breeding ended in 1895 introduced from America, swine plague, export restrictions and rival, foreign pig meat breeds. The stock recovered only in 1911, but was again decimated in the war years.

In 1927, the Hungarian National Association of Fat Pig Breeders (Mangalicatenyésztok Országos Egyesülete, MOE) established and recognized the Mangalitsa pig officially as a separate breed. The Mangalitsa experienced after the Second World War, a new boom. The number of registered breeding pigs increased by 1943 to 30.000 pieces.

From the 50s of the 20th Century, the demand for pork products changed radically and pig breeds with lean meat quality supplanted the Mangalitsa pig. During the late seventies industrial pig established with imported pig meat breeds and standardized health conditions in warehouses, the Mangalitsa pig was maintained only in zoos or occasionally by small farmers for their own use.

In 1973, the Mangalitsa in Hungary was placed under protection and introduced a subsidized gene reserve breed. Until 1980 within 10 farms it was possible to rebuilt a breeding line of the three race options: Blonde, Red and swallowbellied


Only an export agreement with Spain for the production of Serrano ham (Jamón Serrano) from 1990 caused an economic boom of Mangalitzas.